• 3PL
    The term third-party logistics provider means a person or company who solely receives, holds or otherwise transports a consumer product in the ordinary course of business but who does not take title to the product.
  • Advance
    To move cargo up line to a vessel leaving sooner than the one booked.
  • Agent
    A person authorized to transact business for and in the name of another person or company.
  • Aggregate Shipment
    Numerous shipments from different shippers to one consignee that are consolidated and treated as a single consignment.
  • FBA
    With Fulfillment by Amazon (FBA), you store your products in Amazon's fulfillment centers, Amazon picks, packs, ships, and provides customer service for these products.
  • B/L
    Abbreviation for "Bill of Lading."
  • Backhaul
    the return trip of a commercial truck that is transporting freight back over all or part of the same route it took to get to its current location.
  • Bill of Lading
    Multi-use documents that are essential to conducting day-to-day operations when transportation of supplies, materials, and personal property is required. These primary documents are used to procure freight and express transportation and related services from commercial carriers, including freight forwarders.
  • Break Bulk
    Break Bulk is to separate parts of a load into individual shipments for routing to different destinations.
  • Bulk Cargo
    Not in packages or containers; shipped loose in the hold of a ship without mark and count." Grain, coal and sulfur are usually bulk freight.
  • CFR
    Incoterms CFR stands for "Cost and Freight." - CFR Incoterms require the seller to deliver the goods on board the vessel. The seller contracts to pay for the cost of freight to move the goods to the port of destination. Risks are passed at the point of delivery on board the vessel. The seller is required to clear goods through export only.
  • CIF
    Incoterms CIF stands for "Cost, Insurance, and Freight." CIF Incoterms requires the seller to deliver the goods on board the vessel and contracts and pays for the cost of freight to move the goods to the port of destination. The seller also contracts and pays for the cost of insurance, and is required to clear goods through export only.
  • CIP
    Incoterms CIP stands for "Carriage and Insurance Paid To." - CIP Incoterms requires that the seller delivers the goods to the carrier or named person at an agreed location. The seller contracts to pay for carriage to the agreed location and the cost of insurance. The seller is required to clear goods through export only.
  • Consignee
    The consignee is the entity who is financially responsible (the buyer) for the receipt of a shipment. Generally, but not always, the consignee is the same as the receiver.
  • Consolidation Services
    Freight consolidation is when several LCL (Less than Container Load) shipments, all being forwarded to the same location, are bundled and shipped together. This service can be beneficial both to the customer and to the freight forwarder.
  • CPT
    Incoterms CPT stands for "Carriage Paid To." -  CPT Incoterms requires the seller to deliver the goods to the carrier or named person at an agreed location. The seller contracts to pay the costs of carriage to the destination. The buyer assumes all risks at the first transfer of goods. The seller is required to clear goods through export only.
  • Cross-dock
    Cross docking is a logistics procedure where products from a supplier or manufacturing plant are distributed directly to a customer or retail chain with marginal to no handling or storage time.
  • Curtain Vans
    A Curtain Van or Curtainside Trailer is a flatbed with an upper structure installed on the flatbed that allows for a curtain tarping system to cover the sides of the trailer.
  • Customs Brokerage
    Customs brokers alleviate the stress of dealing with customs officials and learning shipping regulations so that clients can spend more time on managing their core business.
  • Cut-off Time
    The latest time cargo may be delivered to a terminal for loading to a scheduled train or ship.
  • DAP
    Incoterms DAP stands for "Delivered at Place." - DAP Incoterms requires the seller to pay for carriage to the named place and assume all risks prior to the point that goods are ready for unloading by the buyer. The seller is required to clear goods through export only.
  • DAT
    Incoterms DAT stands for "Delivered at Terminal." - DAT Incoterms requires that the seller delivers and unloads goods at a named terminal. The seller assumes all risks associated with delivering and unloading the goods at the terminal. The seller is required to clear goods through export only.
  • DDP
    Incoterms DDP stands for "Delivered Duty Paid." - DDP Incoterms requires that the seller pays for carriage, delivery, and customs clearance at destination. The seller is also responsible for any and all applicable taxes and duties. The seller assumes responsibility only after all goods are cleared and duties and taxes paid.
  • Deficit Weight
    The weight by which a shipment is less than the minimum weight.
  • Devanning
    Unloading cargo from a shipping container.
  • Diversion
    A change made in the route of a shipment in transit.
  • Door-to-Door
    Through transportation of a container and its contents from consignor to consignee.
  • Door-to-Port
    Transportation where the shipment originates “ at the seller ́s door” and is delivered to a designated port on the buyer's side.
  • Drayage
    Drayage is the transport of goods over a short distance. Drayage is often part of a longer overall move, such as from a ship to a warehouse.
  • Drop-and-Pick
    A drop and pick happens when the truck driver drops off the container at the warehouse and then picks up a different, empty container before leaving. A drop and pick is less expensive than a drop or a live unload; however, it’s only possible if you have containers arriving every few days.
  • Dry Vans
    Dry Vans are connected to a tractor vehicle directly instead of being loaded onto a flatbed. Dry Van shipping is the most common method of shipping freight.
  • Entry
    Customs documents required to clear an import shipment for entry into the general commerce of a country.
  • Exclusive Use Trucking
    Exclusive use trucking is where a shipper requests that their freight is the only freight on the truck from origin to final destination.
  • Expedited
    Expedited shipping is the process of sending a parcel at a faster rate than would normally be customary. This usually means that your freight will make fewer stops on its way to its destination.
  • Export License
    A government document which permits the "Licensee" to engage in the export of designated goods to certain destinations.
  • EXW
    Incoterms EXW stands for "Ex Works." - EXW Incoterms requires that the seller place goods at the disposal of the buyer at the seller’s premises or another named location. The seller will not contract for the loading of goods, collecting vehicles, or clearing goods through customs.
  • FAS
    Incoterms FAS stands for "Free Alongside Ship." - FAS Incoterms requires that the seller delivers goods placed alongside a vessel at the named port nominated by the buyer. The seller bears all costs associated with transport until the goods are alongside the vessel, and the buyer assumes risks from that point forward. The seller is required to clear goods through export only.
  • FCA
    Incoterms FCA stands for "Free Carrier." - FCA Incoterms requires that the seller delivers the goods to the carrier or named person at the seller’s premises or another named location. The seller is required to clear goods through export only.
  • FCL
    The abbreviation for “Full Container Load”.
  • Flatbeds
    Flatbed shipping is transportation for cargo that may not require the enclosure of a dry van, cannot be loaded or unloaded from a dock, or does not fit within the dimensions of standard truck trailers.
  • FOB
    Incoterms FOB stands for "Free on Board." - The seller delivers and loads the goods on the vessel nominated by the buyer. The seller bears all costs associated with transportation, and all risks are assumed by the buyer after the point of delivery and unloading. The seller is required to clear goods through export only.
  • Free Time
    That amount of time that a carrier's equipment may be used without incurring additional charges.
  • Free Trade Zone
    An area designated by the government of a country for duty-free entry of any non-prohibited goods. Merchandise may be stored, displayed, and used within the zone and re-exported without duties.
  • Freight Forwarding Company
    Firm specializing in arranging storage and shipping of merchandise on behalf of its shippers. Freight forwarders usually ship under their own bills of lading or air waybills (called house bill of lading or house air waybill) and their agents or associates at the destination (overseas freight forwarders) provide document delivery, deconsolidation, and freight collection services. Also called forwarder.
  • FTL
    Full Truckload shipping (FTL) means that the shipment will take up an entire truck by itself.
  • General Rate Increase
    an across-the-board tariff rate increase applied to base rates.
  • Gross Vehicle Weight
    The combined total weight of a vehicle and its freight.
  • Gross Weight
    Entire weight of goods, packaging and freight container, ready for shipment.
    An industry abbreviation for "Hazardous Material."
  • Heavy-Lift Charge
    A charge made for lifting articles too heavy to be lifted by a ship's normal tackle.
  • Import License
    A document required and issued by some national governments authorizing the importation of goods.
  • Indemnity Bond
    An agreement made with a transportation line relieving it from liability for any action on its part for which it would otherwise be liable.
  • Intermodal
    Intermodal transportation involves moving freight using two or more modes (trucking, rail, or ocean) without handling the freight.
  • Jettison
    Act of throwing cargo or equipment (jetsam) overboard when a ship is in danger.
  • Just-in-time
    Just-in-time” (JIT) is a manufacturing shipping logistics strategy in which materials are kept off-site and delivered to the manufacturer precisely when they are needed (as determined by demand signals or a pre-determined schedule).
  • Knot
    One nautical mile (6,076 feet or 1852 meters) per hour. In the days of sail, speed was measured by tossing overboard a log which was secured by a line. Knots were tied into the line at intervals of approximately six feet. The number of knots measured was then compared against time required to travel the distance of 1000 knots in the line.
  • LCL
    The abbreviation of “Less than Container Load”. LCL usually means that your parcel will share space in a container with other parcels, and cost. This method is cost-effective for smaller shipping loads.
  • Letter of Indemnity
    A letter of indemnity is a guarantee from shipper or consignee as protection for the carrier for costs and/or loss, if any, in order to obtain favorable action by the carrier. I.E. it is used to allow consignee to take delivery of goods without surrendering B/L which has been delayed.
  • Lift-on Lift-off
    Lift-on Lift-off vessels, also known as LO-LO vessels, transport cargo that must be lifted on and off vessels and other vehicles using handling equipment.
  • Logistics
    Part of the supply chain process that plans, implements, and controls the efficient flow and storage of goods, between the point of origin and the point of consumption, in order to meet customer’s requirements.
  • LTL
    Less than truckload shipping or less than load (LTL) is the transportation of relatively small freight or freight that does not take up an entire truck.
  • Manifest
    Document that lists in detail all the bills of lading issued by a carrier, agent, or master for a specific voyage. A detailed summary of the total cargo of a vessel.
  • Marine Insurance
    Insurance covering loss or damage of goods at sea; typically compensates the owner of merchandise for losses sustained from fire, shipwreck, etc., but excludes losses that can be recovered from the carrier.
  • Mechanically Ventilated Container
    A container fitted with a means of forced air ventilation.
  • Metric Ton
    2,204.6 pounds or 1,000 kilograms
  • Net Tare Weight
    The weight of an empty cargo-carrying piece of equipment plus any fixtures permanently attached.
  • No Show
    Cargo which has been booked but does not arrive in time to be loaded before the vessel departs.
    NVOCC stands for Non-Vessel Operating Common Carrier. The main difference between a freight forwarder and an NVOCC is that NVOCC is considered a “carrier” and is responsible for the load in the eyes of customers, customs, and international authorities.
  • OTI
    An Ocean Transportation Intermediary or OTI is an ocean freight forwarder/non-vessel-operating common carrier.
  • Out of Gauge
    Out of Gauge or “OOG” is cargo that exceeds the dimensions of a shipping container by length, width, height or all of the above.
  • Over-Dimensional
    An Over Dimensional shipment is a load that exceeds the standard or ordinary legal size and/or weight limits for a specified portion of road, highway or other transport infrastructure.
  • Over-the-road
    Over-the-road or “OTR” is the transport of materials over long distances, as opposed to local routes.
  • Oversized
    An oversized shipment is a load that exceeds the standard or ordinary legal size and/or weight limits for a specified portion of road, highway or other transport infrastructure.
  • Palletized
    To stack and package freight on pallets for efficient shipping.
  • Pilferage
    Pilferage is the act of stealing cargo.
  • Port of Discharge
    Port of discharge (POD) is where cargo is discharged from vessel. In the case of transshipment, there can be multiple points of discharge during the course of shipment until it reaches the final POD.
  • Port of Loading
    Port of loading is where a vessel is loaded.
  • Proof of Delivery
    Proof of Delivery is a document required from the carrier or truck driver for proper payment.
  • Quarantine
    A restraint placed on an operation to protect the public against a health hazard. A ship may be quarantined so that it cannot leave a protected point. During the quarantine period, the Q flag is hoisted.
  • Quota
    The quantity of goods that may be imported without restriction during a set period of time.
  • Reefer
    A refrigerated container or “reefer” is a shipping container used in intermodal freight transport that is refrigerated for temperature-sensitive cargo.
  • Refrigerated
    A refrigerated container is used in intermodal freight transport and is refrigerated for the transportation of temperature-sensitive cargo.
  • RO-RO
    Roll-on / Roll-off, also known as “RO-RO”, means that cargo rolls on or off the vessel, as opposed to being lifted using cranes.
  • Roll-on / Roll-off
    Also known as “RORO”, this means that cargo rolls on or off of the vessel and typically applies to wheeled cargo, as opposed to being lifted using cranes.
  • Roller Beds
    A shipping bed that is fitted with rollers to facilitate loading and unloading.
  • Step Deck
    A Step Deck Flatbed is a platform semi trailer with no sides, no roof and no doors, and it has two deck levels. The lower deck allows for hauling taller loads than a regular straight floor flatbed. Drop Decks are also known as Drop Decks & Lowboy trailers.
  • Straight Trucks
    Straight trucks are used to transport goods like furniture, appliances, etc.
  • Surcharge
    An extra or additional charge.
  • Transloading
    Transloading is the process of transferring a shipment from one mode of transportation to another.
  • UFC
    Abbreviation for "Uniform Freight Classification."
  • Unclaimed Freight
    Freight that has not been called for or picked up by the consignee or owner.
  • Unloading
    Removal of a shipment from a vessel.
  • Validated Export License
    A document issued by the U.S. Office of Export Administration; authorizes the export of commodities for which written authorization is required by law.
  • War Risk Insurance
    Insurance coverage for loss of goods resulting from any act of war.
  • Waybill
    A document prepared by a transportation line at the point of a shipment; shows the point of origin, destination, route, consignor, consignee, description of shipment and amount charged for the transportation service. It is forwarded with the shipment or sent by mail to the agent at the transfer point or waybill destination.
  • Wharfage
    Wharfage is a charge assessed by a pier or dock owner against freight handled over the pier or dock or against a steamship company using the pier or dock.